Prathima Cancer Institute

Liver Cancer


The disease known as liver cancer, or hepatic cancer, affects millions of people worldwide and is often fatal. According to the Best Cancer Hospital in Warangal, it arises from the uncontrolled growth of malignant cells within the liver, one of the body’s most vital organs. As with many forms of cancer, early detection and intervention are crucial for improving the chances of survival. As October is “Liver Cancer Awareness Month”, this article provides an overview of liver cancer’s causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. 

I. Types of Liver Cancer:

Different forms of liver cancer exist, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) standing as the most dominant among them. Understanding the different types of liver cancer is essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Liver cancer can be classified into the following types:

1. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC):

· HCC is the most prevalent form of liver cancer, accounting for about 75% of cases.

· It typically starts in the hepatocytes, the primary cell type in the liver.

· Risk factors for HCC include chronic hepatitis B or C infection, cirrhosis, excessive alcohol consumption, and certain genetic conditions.

2. Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma:

· This type of liver cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver.

· It accounts for approximately 10-20% of liver cancer cases.

· Chronic inflammation of the bile ducts (primary sclerosing cholangitis) is a known risk factor for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

3. Hepatoblastoma:

· Hepatoblastoma primarily affects children and is rare in adults.

· It develops in the immature cells of the liver and is usually diagnosed in children under the age of 3.

4.Angiosarcoma and Hemangiosarcoma:

· These irregular kinds of liver cancer develop in the blood vessels of the liver.

· They account for only a small percentage of liver cancer cases.

II. Causes and Risk Factors:

Liver cancer typically develops as a result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Several threat factors improve the likelihood of acquiring liver cancer:

1. Chronic Viral Infections:

· Cancers of the liver are associated with chronic hepatitis B or C infections.

· These infections can lead to liver cirrhosis, which increases the risk of cancer development.

2. Cirrhosis:

· Cirrhosis is the scarring of liver tissue, often caused by long-term alcohol abuse, hepatitis, or other liver diseases.

· Cirrhosis significantly raises the risk of liver cancer.

3. Alcohol Abuse:

· Excessive and prolonged alcohol consumption can lead to liver cirrhosis and increase the risk of liver cancer.

4. Non-alcoholic fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD):

· According to the Best Oncologist in Warangal, NAFLD, associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, increasing the risk of liver cancer.

5. Obesity:

· Obesity is linked to an increased risk of liver cancer, likely due to its association with fatty liver disease.

6. Diabetes:

· People with diabetes are more susceptible to developing liver cancer, especially if they have other risk factors.

7. Family History:

· A family history of liver cancer or related conditions can elevate an individual’s risk.

8. Exposure to Toxins:

· Occupational exposure to certain chemicals and toxins, such as vinyl chloride and aflatoxins, can increase the risk of liver cancer.

9. Smoking:

· Smoking is associated with various cancers, including liver cancer.

10. Gender and Age:

· Men are generally more susceptible to liver cancer than women.

· The risk of liver cancer increases with age, with most cases diagnosed in individuals over 50.

III. Symptoms and Diagnosis:

Liver cancer often remains asymptomatic in its early stages, making early detection challenging. As the disease progresses, various symptoms may manifest, including:

1. Unexplained Weight Loss: Sudden and unexplained weight loss is a common early symptom of liver cancer. Patients may experience a significant decrease in their body weight over a short period.

2. Fatigue: Persistent fatigue, even after adequate rest, can be a sign of liver cancer. Fatigue can affect daily activities & be debilitating.

3. Abdominal Pain or Discomfort: Dull, aching pain or discomfort in the upper right portion of the abdomen may occur as the tumour grows and exerts pressure on surrounding tissues.

4. Jaundice: Jaundice is a notable symptom of liver cancer. It manifests as the yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes due to the buildup of bilirubin in the blood. Liver cancer can obstruct the bile ducts, leading to this condition.

5. Swelling in the Abdomen: As liver cancer advances, fluid may accumulate in the abdominal cavity, causing abdominal swelling, also known as ascites.

6. Loss of Appetite: Liver cancer can affect the appetite, leading to a loss of interest in food and unintended weight loss.

7. Nausea and Vomiting: Some individuals with liver cancer may experience nausea and vomiting, which can be related to the cancer itself or side effects from treatment.

8. Itchy Skin: Pruritus, or itching of the skin, can occur when the liver is unable to effectively process and eliminate toxins from the body. This leads to the buildup of substances that can irritate the skin.

9. Pale Stools: Liver cancer can disrupt the flow of bile, leading to pale or clay-coloured stools.

10. Dark Urine: Dark urine can result from the buildup of bilirubin in the bloodstream due to impaired liver function. It may appear brownish or dark yellow.

If any of these symptoms persist or worsen, it is crucial to consult a Best Oncology Hospital in Warangal promptly. It is likely to enhance treatment outcomes significantly with early diagnosis.

Diagnostic Procedures:

Several tests and procedures are employed to diagnose liver cancer:

1. Blood Tests:

· Elevated levels of liver enzymes and certain proteins may indicate liver damage or the presence of cancer.

2. Imaging Studies:

· Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans can provide detailed pictures of the liver, helping identify tumours.

3. Biopsy:

· A biopsy involves the removal of a small tissue sample from the liver for examination under a microscope. This confirms the presence of cancer and helps determine its type and stage.

4. Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) Test:

· AFP is a protein often elevated in individuals with liver cancer. This blood test can be used to monitor the disease’s progression and response to treatment.

5. Liver Function Tests:

· These tests assess how well the liver is functioning and can help diagnose liver problems, including cancer.

IV. Staging and Prognosis:

Staging is a critical aspect of liver cancer diagnosis, as it determines the extent and severity of the disease. The stages of liver cancer are typically classified as follows:

· Stage I (Very Early Stage or Stage 0): At this stage, you have a solitary tumor in your liver that measures less than 2 centimeters (cm) in size. Importantly, blood tests reveal that your bilirubin level is within the normal range.

· Stage II (Early Stage or Stage A): In this stage, you either have a single tumor that measures 5 cm or less, or you have multiple tumors, but each of them measures less than 3 cm. Additionally, there may be indications that the tumor has spread to nearby blood vessels.

· Stage III (Intermediate Stage or Stage B): Stage III is characterized by the presence of multiple tumors, a single tumor that measures more than 5 cm, or the tumor spreading to various locations. This may include the involvement of lymph nodes, large blood vessels, or even another organ.

· Stage IV (Advanced Stage or Stage C): At the advanced stage (Stage IV), the cancer has metastasized, which means it has spread to distant sites in your body. This can include organs such as the lungs or bones, as well as the involvement of multiple lymph nodes.

The prognosis for liver cancer varies widely depending on the stage at diagnosis, the extent of tumour spread, and the overall health of the patient. Early-stage liver cancer is more treatable and associated with a better prognosis, while advanced stages often have a poorer outlook.

V. Treatment Options:

The choice of treatment for liver cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the patient’s overall health, and other individual factors. Treatment options for liver cancer include:

1. Surgery:

· Surgical removal of the tumour (resection) is a common treatment for early-stage liver cancer.

· A liver transplant may be an option for select patients with liver cancer and cirrhosis.

2. Ablation Therapy:

· This minimally invasive technique involves destroying cancerous tissue using heat (radiofrequency or microwave ablation) or cold (cryoablation).

3.Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE):

· TACE is a procedure that delivers chemotherapy drugs directly to the tumour, followed by the blockage of the blood vessels feeding the tumour.

3. Radiation Therapy:

· External beam radiation therapy employs high-energy X-rays to precisely target and eradicate cancerous cells.

· Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) delivers radiation directly to liver tumours via tiny radioactive beads.

4. Targeted Therapy:

· Targeted drugs are designed to attack specific molecules involved in cancer growth and progression.

· Sorafenib and lenvatinib are examples of targeted therapies used for advanced liver cancer.

5. Immunotherapy:

· Immunotherapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors, are being studied as potential treatments for liver cancer, particularly in advanced cases.

6. Chemotherapy:

· Chemotherapy drugs may be used in cases where other treatments are not effective.

· Chemotherapy is often less effective for liver cancer compared to other cancer types.

7. Palliative Care:

· Palliative care focuses on symptom management and improving the quality of life for patients with advanced liver cancer.

For Best Cancer Treatment in Warangal, Patients need to work closely with their healthcare team to determine the most appropriate treatment plan based on their specific situation.

VI. Prevention:

Preventing liver cancer involves reducing risk factors and adopting a healthy lifestyle. Some preventive measures include:

1. Vaccination:

· One of the most useful ways to control liver cancer is to get vaccinated against hepatitis B.

2. Hepatitis C Treatment:

· If you have hepatitis C, seek appropriate treatment to reduce the risk of liver damage and cancer.

3. Moderate Alcohol Consumption:

· Limit alcohol intake to reduce the risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer.

4. Maintain a Healthy Weight:

· Adopt a balanced diet and engage in regular physical activity to prevent obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

5. Avoid Exposure to Toxins:

· Take precautions to minimize exposure to chemicals and toxins that may increase the risk of liver cancer.

6. Regular Medical Checkups:

· Routine checkups and screenings can help detect liver problems early.


Liver cancer is a complex and potentially deadly disease with various risk factors, types, and treatment options. Detecting liver cancer in its initial stages and promptly administering treatment are vital for enhancing the prognosis. Patients and healthcare professionals must work together to develop personalized treatment plans and explore preventive measures to reduce the risk of liver cancer. Continued research and advancements in liver cancer treatment hold promise for improving the prognosis and quality of life for individuals affected by this challenging condition.







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